Chemistry Solute Solvent Pressure and Molarity Questions

A quick summary of this chapter: In this chapter we learnedA solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances:Consists of solvent—the dissolving agent—and solute—the component(s) dissolved in the solventIs a homogeneous mixtureContains molecular or ionic particlesCan be colored or colorlessCan be separated into solute and solvent by a physical separation processSolubility describes the amount of solute that will dissolve in a specified amount of solvent.Solubility can also be qualitative.Liquids can also be classified as miscible (soluble in each other) or immiscible (not soluble in each other).The concentration of a solution is the quantitative measurement of the amount of solute that is dissolved in a solution.Like tends to dissolve like is a general rule for solvents and solutes.As temperature increases:Solubility of a solid in a liquid tends to increase.Solubility of a gas in a liquid tends to decrease.As pressure increases:Solubility of a solid in a liquid remains constant.Solubility of a gas in a liquid tends to increase.At a specific temperature, the amount of solute that can dissolve in a solvent has a limit:Unsaturated solutions contain less solute than the limit.Saturated solutions contain dissolved solute at the limit.Supersaturated solutions contain more solute than the limit and are therefore unstable:If disturbed, the excess solute will precipitate out of solution.The rate at which a solute dissolves is determined by these factors:Particle sizeTemperatureConcentration of solutionAgitationMolecules or ions must collide in order to react.Solutions provide a medium for the molecules or ions to collide.Concentrations can be measured in many ways.Dilution of solutions requires the addition of more solvent to an existing solution:The number of moles in the diluted solution is the same as that in the original solution.M1V1 = M2V2.Properties of a solution that depend only on the number of solute particles in solution are called colligative properties:Freezing point depression Δtf = mKfBoiling point elevation Δtb = mKbOsmotic pressureMolality is used in working with colligative properties.Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane:Occurs from dilute solution to a solution of higher concentrationOsmosis results in osmotic pressure, which is a colligative property of a solution.

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