Chemistry Valences Questions

(250 pts)

OWN H

Name: _________________________ Student Id #: __________________

  1. (10 pts) Draw a representation of the dyz orbital in the space below. Include cartesian coordinates. How many electrons can reside in the dyz orbital?
  2. (20 pts) Four sets of quantum numbers are listed below (a-d). For each set, identify if the combination of quantum numbers listed could refer to an electron in a ground-state of a silver atom.

Circle either: “Yes, it is a valid” or “No, it is not valid” and then under each set, briefly explain why (1 bullet point or sentence per a-d)

 

Circle

 

(a) n = 1, l = 0, ml = -1, ms=-1/2

Reason:

Yes, it is valid

or

No, it is not valid

(b) n = 4, l = 2, ml = -3, ms = -1/2

Reason:

Yes, it is valid

or

No, it is not valid

(c) n = 3, l = 0, ml = 0, ms = +1/2

Reason:

Yes, it is valid

or

No, it is not valid

(d) n = 5, l = 1, ml = 0, ms = +1/2

Yes, it is valid

or

No, it is not valid

Reason:

 

  1. (34 pts total) 1.817 x 10-22 kJ of energy is required for an electron in a hydrogen atom to make a transition from a higher energy level to the n=3 energy level.

 

      1. (20 pts) What energy level did the electron in the atom of hydrogen originate before the transition? (show work for credit)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

      1. (2 pts) Is this transition absorbing or releasing energy?

 

 

      1. (4 pts) Is this transition absorbing or releasing energy in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectra?
        • If no, is the energy associated with the transitions greater or less than that of the visible spectrum?
        • If yes, how do you know?

 

 

d) (8 pts) Draw an energy level diagram of hydrogen showing this transition.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. (18 pts) List three valid sets of quantum numbers (n, l, ml,& ms) that best describe the three highest energy electrons in a scandium atom when the atom is in the ground state.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. (14 pts total) Answer the following questions about an atom of Gallium, Ga.

 

      1. (6 pts) What is the ground state (Noble Gas) electron configuration of an atom of Gallium?

 

 

 

      1. (8 pts) Draw the orbital diagram of the valence electrons of an atom of Gallium.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. (28 pts total) Answer the following questions about a chlorine atom and a chloride ion.

 

      1. (6 pts) What is the complete electron configuration (not Noble gas) of a chloride ion?

 

 

      1. (4 pts) List two atoms or ions that are isoelectronic with the chloride ion.

 

 

      1. (9 pts) Would a chlorine atom or chloride ion have a larger radius? Explain your answer.

 

 

 

 

 

      1. (9 pts) Would a chloride ion or chlorine atom have a greater tendency to gain an electron? Explain your answer.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. (14 pts total) Write an equation to represent gaseous sodium ion(s) and gaseous oxide ion(s) forming solid sodium oxide. Include energy in the equation. (8 pts for equation)

 

 

 

 

    1. (2 pts) Would the energy associated with this equation be absorbed or released?

 

 

    1. (4 pts) Explain why the energy would be absorbed or released.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. (25 pts total) Answer the following questions about ionization energy.

 

    1. (6 pts) Write the first ionization energy equations for aluminum and silicon.

 

 

 

 

    1. (8 pts) Would aluminum or silicon have the highest first ionization energy? Explain your answer.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    1. (3 pts) Write the second ionization energy equation for aluminum.

 

 

    1. (8 pts) Would aluminum’s first or second ionization energy be greater? Explain your answer.

 

 

  1. (15 pts total) Answer the following questions about atomic radii.

 

    1. (6 pts) Place the following atoms in order of increasing radii:

 

Sb, As, Ba, & Kr

 

 

    1. (9 pts) Explain why As is smaller or larger than Sb.

 

 

  1. (10 pts total)
    1. (4 pts) On the image of the germanium – selenium bond below, indicated the partial charge on each atom and draw a bond dipole.

 

Ge—Se

 

b) (4 pts) On the image of the chlorine – silicon bond below, indicated the partial charge on each atom and draw a bond dipole.

 

Cl—Si

 

c) (2 pts) Which of the two bonds drawn above would have a greater dipole moment? An explanation is net needed for full credit.

 

 

 

  1. (14 pts total) Draw the greatest contributor Lewis structure for NF3. If applicable, include all equivalent resonance hybrids. Once drawn, label the formal charge on each element (Formal charge calculations do not need to be shown for full credit.)

 

 

  1. (18 pts total) Draw the greatest contributor Lewis structure for COF2. If applicable, include all equivalent resonance hybrids. Once drawn, label the formal charge on each element (Formal charge calculations do not need to be shown for full credit.) Hint: There is only one central atom in the molecule.

 

  1. (30 pts total) Draw the greatest contributor Lewis structure for the hydrogen selenate ion, HSeO4 . If applicable, include all equivalent resonance hybrids. Once drawn, label the formal charge on each element (Formal charge calculations do not need to be shown for full credit.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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