Conversion Factors Discussion

CHM-101L Conversion Factors

For this assignment, complete the problems showing all work as you type. If preferred, you may remove the response boxes and print the worksheet to complete the problems by hand. If completed by hand you will need to scan and submit to the instructor as a single pdf.

In part A of the last assignment, “Measurement and Significant Figures,” you measured objects using nonstandard measuring devices. For example, you were asked to measure the width of a door using a pen; how many pens wide was the door? Different rulers were used to measure different lengths. Then you compared and analyzed how measurements appear based on the different units each tool used.

Conversions are changes between units of measurement without changing the relative amount of the measured value. For example, when looking at the door measurement above, the width of the door does not change, only the unit that is being used for the measurement. To accomplish such conversions, the given value is multiplied by one or more conversion factors or equivalencies, in which the numerator and denominator are equal to the same value, so it is like multiplying by 1.

After watching the video “Converting Units with Conversion Factors,” located in the topic materials, complete the following conversions.

Part A: Temperature Measurements and Conversions

Using the thermometers shown below, record the temperature (in degrees Celsius) shown on each thermometer in Table 2.1. Once you have recorded each temperature in degrees C, convert each temperature value to degrees Fahrenheit and Kelvin using the following equations.

Fahrenheit Conversion:

TF = 1.8(TC) + 32

Kelvin Conversion:

TK = TC + 273

See the source image

Image Thermometers from: ekler/Shutterstock.com

Table 2.1

Temperature Values

Temperature

°C

°F (calculation & answer)

K (calculation & answer)

Blue (left) Thermometer

   

Green (center) Thermometer

   

Red (right) Thermometer

   

Part B: Practice Converting Numbers

Use dimensional analysis and conversion factors to convert the following numbers. (Show your work.)

1.5 L

 

1,000 mL

1L

 

Example) 1.5 L → mL = 1,500 mL or 1.5 x 103 mL

Or 1.5L x 1,000 mL = 1,500 mL or 1.5 x 103 mL

1L

  1. 0.6 g → mg Click or tap here to enter text.
  2. 2.5 mcg → mg Click or tap here to enter text.
  3. 25 kg → lb Click or tap here to enter text.
  4. 4. 134 lb → kg Click or tap here to enter text.
  5. 4 tsp → mL Click or tap here to enter text.
  6. 8 Tbsp → mL Click or tap here to enter text.
  7. 12 tsp → Tbsp Click or tap here to enter text.
  8. 82 inches → m Click or tap here to enter text.

Part C: Pregnancy and Newborn Calculations

Sonograms, palpitation of the uterus, and fundal height mark the normal progression of a pregnancy. Fundal height measures the distance from the pubic bone to the top of the uterus over the expanding abdominal area in an expectant mother. Normal fundal heights fall within a range of one to three centimeters (±3) of the baby’s gestational age in weeks. For instance, at 20 weeks, average fundal heights fall between 17 and 23 cm.

Determine if each of the following fundal heights indicates normal or abnormal pregnancy progression. (Show your work.)

  1. 8 weeks: 3.9 inches Click or tap here to enter text.
  2. 27 weeks: 1 ft and ½ inch Click or tap here to enter text.
  3. 40 weeks: 1 ft and 3 inches Click or tap here to enter text.

Head circumference and body length represent two measurements of newborn development. Physicians determine head circumference by wrapping a tape measure around the newborn’s head, across the forehead. Body length typically requires the newborn to lie down, while the physician marks the top of the head and bottom of the feet on the disposable table paper. Then the distance between the two indicates newborn length. Table 2.2 shows the average head circumference and body length of newborns in the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles.

Table 2.2 Average Newborn Body Length and Head Circumference Chart for Males

Age

Head Circumference (cm)

Body Length (cm)

 

25th

50th

75th

25th

50th

75th

At Birth

34

36

37

48

50

52

0.5 months

36

37

38

51

53

54

1.5 months

38

39

40

55

57

58

     

Note. Adapted from Growth Charts, by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2001. Copyright 2001 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Use Table 2.2 to determine how each of the following newborns compare to 25th through 75th percentile. (Show your work.)

    1. At birth, the newborn measured 0.521 m in length with a head circumference of 0.350 m.

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    1. At the newborn’s 2-week appointment, the physician measured a length of 20.1 inches with a head circumference of 14.6 inches.

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    1. At 6 weeks old, the newborn measured 5.75 x 10-4 km length with a head circumference of 0.418 yards.

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Part D: Elderly Height and Weight

According to recent studies (Heiat, Vaccarino, & Krumholz, 2001), being mildly overweight no longer poses a significant risk factor for morbidity in the elderly. Rather, lack of exercise in an “ideal” weight of an elderly individual poses a greater health risk than an overweight, but active elderly individual. Body Mass Index (BMI) Equation is used to calculate BMI. BMI differs from weight because it takes into account not only what an individual weighs, but height as well. Excess weight for a given height is assumed to come primarily from fat and can be an indicator of conditions such as heart disease and diabetes.

Body Mass Index (BMI) Equation:

BMI = mass (kg) / height2 (m2)

Table 2.3 BMI Table

The image shows a body mass index, or BMI, chart. The chart has two columns, with BMI ranges on the left and body classification on the right. The chart is also separated into color categories, starting with blue categories at the top, which represent underweight BMI ranges, followed by green categories, which represent normal BMI ranges, then orange categories, which represent overweight or preobese BMI ranges, and finally red categories, which represent obese BMI ranges. The chart states that a BMI value less than 18.50 is considered underweight, a BMI value between 18.50 and 24.99 is considered a normal range, a BMI value between 25.00 and 29.99 is considered an overweight or preobese range, and a BMI value greater than or equal to 30.00 is considered an obese range.

Based on the information provided and Table 2.3, determine if the elderly individual’s BMI poses a significant health risk. (Show your work.)

  1. An 84-year-old female weighs 154 pounds and stands 5’5″ tall.

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  1. A 92-year-old male approximately 6′ tall weighs 175 lbs.

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  1. A 5′ tall female weighing approximately 122 lbs.

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Part E: Drug Dosages

Show your work to calculate the correct dosage for each of the scenarios provided.

  1. Statins, such as lovastatin, treat high cholesterol and high triglycerides to help prevent cardiac events. A doctor orders a patient to take 25.0 mg of lovastatin per day, which is available as a 0.05 g/tablet. How many tablets should the patient take per day?

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  1. Following a heart attack, a physician orders a patient to begin taking a beta-blocker to treat angina and hypertension. The tablets are available in 50 mg. If the physician gradually increases the patient’s dosage, calculate the number of tablets required if the doctor requests 150 mg/day, 200 mg/day, and 225 mg/day.

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  1. A patient with systemic lupus erythematosus takes 250 mg capsules of mycophenolate mofetil for immunosuppression. How many tablets should the patient take at each dosing time if the doctor requests the patient take 2.00 g per day, divided into two dosages?

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  1. A 110-lb patient on sedation requires 2.5 mg of fentanyl/kg. Calculate the number of mg the physician should order.

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  1. A common fever-reducing medication in children is acetaminophen, available as an 80-mg chewable tablet. The correct dosage is 10 mg/kg. How many tablets are required for a child weighing 36 pounds?

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  1. A physician ordered a patient to take 2.0 tsp of a cough syrup every 2 hours for the next 12 hours. Calculate the total number of milliliters required over the 12-hour period.

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Part F: Intravenous and Infusion Calculations

Show your work to calculate the correct dosage for each of the scenarios provided.

  1. A physician ordered 40 units of heparin. Calculate the milliliters required if heparin is available as 100 units/mL.

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  1. A physician ordered 5.0 mg of methylprednisolone. Calculate the milliliters required if methylprednisolone is available as 10 mg/2 mL.

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  1. A physician ordered 0.25 g of vancomycin, which is available as 125 mg/mL. Calculate the number of milliliters required.

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  1. Patients on ventilators often receive sedation to aid healing and comfort care. A doctor ordered 2.0 mcg of propofol per kilogram of body weight per minute. The pharmacy sent a 20-mcg solution. To prepare the IV, calculate how many mcg to administer per hour for a 44-lb. patient.

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  1. A physician ordered 0.50 g of cefazolin by IV. Cefazolin exists as a 1.0 g dry package, which states to add 2.5 mL of sterile water to reconstitute to a final liquid volume of 3.0 mL. Calculate how many milliliters the patient should receive.

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  1. An IV flow rate consists of the number of mL/hours. Calculate the flow rate that a 1000 mL IV solution infuses over an 8-hour period.

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  1. Considering an IV flow rate in mL/hour, calculate the flow rate of the same 1000 mL IV solution infusing over a period of 6 hours.

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  1. The drop factor (gtts/mL) is the number of drops it takes to equal 1 mL for specific tubing in intravenous fluids. All packaging of fluids provides this information. Calculate the required drops per minute for a solution with a flow rate of 120 mL/hr and a drop factor of 15 gtts/mL.

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  1. Calculate the drops/minute for an intravenous solution with a flow rate of 100 mL/hr and drop factor of 20 gtts/mL.

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  1. Both mL/hr and cc/hr represent the total amount of fluid given per hour. Calculate the fluid/hour for a 1.0 L IV solution set to flow for 10 hours.

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  1. Calculate the drops/min for Question 10 if the drop factor is 20 gtts/mL.

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  1. A dehydrated patient receives a 2.0 L dextrose solution to infuse over 16 hours. Calculate the drops/min if the tubing used has a drop factor of 20 gtts/mL.

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  1. The physician ordered a heparin drip for a patient with atrial fibrillation to infuse at 1,000 units per hour. The drip comes as 25,000 units in 1,500 mL solution. Calculate the milliliters received in the first hour. Then calculate the flow rate per minute if the tubing is 25 gtts/mL.

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References:

ekler/Shutterstock.com. (n.d.) Image: Thermometers retrieved from: https://austerninternationalblog.wordpress.com/2015/10/13/are-you-the-thermometer-or-the-thermostat/

Grand Canyon University. (2016). Conversion Factors Lab. CHM-101L Laboratory Manual for General and Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/chm101l/laboratory-manual-for-general-and-organic-chemistry-and-biochemistry/v2.1/#/chapter/3

Heiat, A., Vaccarino, V., & Krumholz, H. M. (2001). An evidence-based assessment of federal guidelines for overweight and obesity as they apply to elderly persons. Archives of Internal Medicine, 161(9), 1194–1203. doi:10.1001/archinte.161.9.1194.

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