Glycoproteins and blood Transfusions

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTION #1.

1. state briefly the purpose of the biochemical connection ( no more than 250 words)

2. Report three of the main findings of the biochemical connection

3. State the most important outcome as a conclusion of the biochemical connection.

Questions
4. What is the direct cause of sickle-cell anemia (think primary structure)?
5. What is the effect of the altered amino acid sequence in Hb S that causes the cells

to form sickle shapes?

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTION #2.

1. State briefly the purpose of the biochemical connection ( no more than 250 words)

2. Report three of the main findings of the biochemical connection

3. State the most important outcome as a conclusion of the biochemical connection.

Questions
4. Why do scientists believe that the sickle-cell trait has not evolved out of the human

population yet considering how deadly it is to be homozygous for the sickle cell
gene?

5. What is the purpose of treating a sickle-cell patient with hydroxyurea?

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTION #3.

1. State briefly the purpose of the biochemical connection ( no more than 250 words)

2. Report three of the main findings of the biochemical connection

3. State the most important outcome as a conclusion of the biochemical connection.

Questions
4. What is BCL11A and how is it related to hemoglobin?
5. Given the purpose of hemoglobin, what could one envision as a downside to having

all our hemoglobin as Hb F instead of Hb A?

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTION #4.

1. State briefly the purpose of the biochemical connection ( no more than 250 words)

2. Report three of the main findings of the biochemical connection

3. State the most important outcome as a conclusion of the biochemical connection.

Questions
4. What is the most significant difference between prion diseases and other diseases

caused by amyloid type plaques, such as Alzheimer’s?
5. What aspects of the transmission of scrapie or other spongiform encephalopathies

act like genetic diseases? What aspects act like transmittable diseases?

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTION #5.

1. State briefly the purpose of the biochemical connection ( no more than 250 words)

2. Report three of the main findings of the biochemical connection

3. State the most important outcome as a conclusion of the biochemical connection.

Questions
4. What enzymes are known to be involved in Alzheimer’s disease?
5. What proteins are involved in the formation of the destructive plaques found in

Alzheimer’s disease?

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTION #6.

1. State briefly the purpose of the biochemical connection ( no more than 250 words)

2. Report three of the main findings of the biochemical connection

3. State the most important outcome as a conclusion of the biochemical connection.

Questions
4. Describe what happens according to the “amyloid cascade hypothesis.”
5. Why would doctors not want to just completely inhibit β-secretase in a patient with

Alzheimer’s disease?

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTION #7.

1. State briefly the purpose of the biochemical connection ( no more than 250 words)

2. Report three of the main findings of the biochemical connection

3. State the most important outcome as a conclusion of the biochemical connection.

Questions
4. Severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) is characterized by the

complete lack of an immune system. Strains of mice have been developed that have
SCID. When SCID mice that carry genetic predisposition to prion diseases are
infected with PrPsc, they do not develop prion diseases. How do these facts relate to
the transmission of prion diseases?

5. An isolated strain of sheep was found in New Zealand. Most of these sheep carried
the gene for predisposition to scrapie, yet none of them ever came down with the
disease. How do these facts relate to the transmission of prion diseases?

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTION #8.

1. State briefly the purpose of the biochemical connection ( no more than 250 words)

2. Report three of the main findings of the biochemical connection

3. State the most important outcome as a conclusion of the biochemical connection.

Questions
4. What part of the HIV lifecycle is disrupted by the drugs indinavir and amprenavir?
5. What part of the HIV lifecycle is disrupted by MK-0518?

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTION #9.

1. State briefly the purpose of the biochemical connection ( no more than 250 words)

2. Report three of the main findings of the biochemical connection

3. State the most important outcome as a conclusion of the biochemical connection.

Questions
4. What has been the historical method used in drug design?
5. What is a main reason for side effects with traditional drugs that bind to the active

site of a receptor?

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTION #10.

1. State briefly the purpose of the biochemical connection ( no more than 250 words)

2. Report three of the main findings of the biochemical connection

3. State the most important outcome as a conclusion of the biochemical connection.

Questions
4. What are three advantages of using allosteric drugs as opposed to orthosteric ones?
5. How does Valium work?

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTION #11.

1. State briefly the purpose of the biochemical connection ( no more than 250 words)

2. Report three of the main findings of the biochemical connection

3. State the most important outcome as a conclusion of the biochemical connection.

Questions
4. Why is taking too much Valium not as dangerous as taking too much Phenobarbital?
5. What are two recent allosteric drugs that are currently on the market? What do they

do?

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTION #12.

1. State briefly the purpose of the biochemical connection ( no more than 250 words)

2. Report three of the main findings of the biochemical connection

3. State the most important outcome as a conclusion of the biochemical connection.

Questions
4. Why can cocaine addiction not be treated with a drug that blocks the cocaine

receptor?
5. Explain how abzymes can be used to treat cocaine addiction.

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTION #13.

1. State briefly the purpose of the biochemical connection ( no more than 250 words)

2. Report three of the main findings of the biochemical connection

3. State the most important outcome as a conclusion of the biochemical connection.

Questions

4. What are glycoproteins?
5. Briefly indicate the role of glycoproteins as antigenic determinants for blood groups.

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTION #14.

1. State briefly the purpose of the biochemical connection ( no more than 250 words)

2. Report three of the main findings of the biochemical connection

3. State the most important outcome as a conclusion of the biochemical connection.

Questions
4. Cancer cells grow so rapidly that they have a higher rate of anaerobic metabolism

than most body tissues, especially at the center of a tumor. Can you use drugs that
poison the enzymes of anaerobic metabolism in the treatment of cancer? Why, or
why not?

5. Can modification of enzymes of aerobic glycolysis play a role in cancer treatment?

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTION #15.

1. State briefly the purpose of the biochemical connection ( no more than 250 words)

2. Report three of the main findings of the biochemical connection

3. State the most important outcome as a conclusion of the biochemical connection.

Questions
4. What is the connection between material in this chapter and hemolytic anemia?
5. List two ways in which glutathione functions in red blood cells.

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTION #16.

1. State briefly the purpose of the biochemical connection ( no more than 250 words)

2. Report three of the main findings of the biochemical connection

3. State the most important outcome as a conclusion of the biochemical connection.

Questions
4. Why do some people call GLUT4 the training glucose transporter?
5. How are insulin, GLUT4, obesity, and type II diabetes related?

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTION #17.

1. State briefly the purpose of the biochemical connection ( no more than 250 words)

2. Report three of the main findings of the biochemical connection

3. State the most important outcome as a conclusion of the biochemical connection.

Questions
4. What types of normal cells typically have insulin receptors?
5. What is the relationship between obesity and cancer?

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTION #18.

1. State briefly the purpose of the biochemical connection ( no more than 250 words)

2. Report three of the main findings of the biochemical connection

3. State the most important outcome as a conclusion of the biochemical connection.

Questions
4. What is the Warburg effect?
5. Why would cancer cells favor such inefficient metabolism?

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTION #19.

1. State briefly the purpose of the biochemical connection ( no more than 250 words)

2. Report three of the main findings of the biochemical connection

3. State the most important outcome as a conclusion of the biochemical connection.

Questions
4. What is PTEN and what is its relationship to cancer?
5. What is the natural function of PTEN?

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTION #20.

1. State briefly the purpose of the biochemical connection ( no more than 250 words)

2. Report three of the main findings of the biochemical connection

3. State the most important outcome as a conclusion of the biochemical connection.

Questions
4. What are the structural differences between the peptide hormones oxytocin and

vasopressin? How do these peptides hormones differ in function?
5. What is the role of the disulfide bond in oxytocin and vasopressin?

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTION #21.

1. State briefly the purpose of the biochemical connection ( no more than 250 words)

2. Report three of the main findings of the biochemical connection

3. State the most important outcome as a conclusion of the biochemical connection.

Questions
4. How do the KM values for glucokinase and hexokinase reflect their roles in sugar

metabolism?
5. When does Kcat / KM value approximate the catalytic efficiency of an enzyme?

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTION #22.

1. State briefly the purpose of the biochemical connection ( no more than 250 words)

2. Report three of the main findings of the biochemical connection

3. State the most important outcome as a conclusion of the biochemical connection.

Questions
4. You are planning to go on a strenuous hike and are advised to eat plenty of high-

carbohydrates foods, such as bread and pasta for several days beforehand. Suggest
a reason for the advice. Would it be advantageous to consume a candy bar with a
high refined-sugar content immediately before you start the strenuous hike?

5. Would eating candy bars, high in sucrose rather than complex carbohydrates, help
build up glycogen stores?

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTION #23.

1. State briefly the purpose of the biochemical connection ( no more than 250 words)

2. Report three of the main findings of the biochemical connection

3. State the most important outcome as a conclusion of the biochemical connection.

Questions
4. An infant with galactosemia can utilize d-glucose in milk but not D-galactose. How

does the Fischer projection of D-galactose differ from that of D-glucose? Explain
5. Identify the monosaccharide that fits each of the following descriptions:

a. is also called blood sugar
b. found in high blood levels in diabetes
Explain.

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTION #24.

1. State briefly the purpose of the biochemical connection ( no more than 250 words)

2. Report three of the main findings of the biochemical connection

3. State the most important outcome as a conclusion of the biochemical connection.

Questions
4. Increasing thermogenesis has been thought to be a way to lose weight. In fact, 2,4-

dinitrophenol is available as a supplement most often used by bodybuilders to burn
fat. This dangerous drug is also marketed as a pesticide and kills insects in a similar
manner. What might be a side effect of using this compound?

5. Oligomycin is an antibiotic that inhibits ATP synthase. If ATP synthase is not
operable, what happens to the energy from electron transport?

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTION #25.

1. State briefly the purpose of the biochemical connection ( no more than 250 words)

2. Report three of the main findings of the biochemical connection

3. State the most important outcome as a conclusion of the biochemical connection.

Questions
4. Diabetics often display signs of ketosis if insulin levels are not maintained. What is

ketosis?
5. Why do diabetics produce high levels of ketone bodies?

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTION #26.

1. State briefly the purpose of the biochemical connection ( no more than 250 words)

2. Report three of the main findings of the biochemical connection

3. State the most important outcome as a conclusion of the biochemical connection.

Questions
4. Why might a glass of warm milk help you sleep at night?
5. Which would be better to eat before an exam, a glass of milk or a piece of cheese?

Why?

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTION #27.

1. State briefly the purpose of the biochemical connection ( no more than 250 words)

2. Report three of the main findings of the biochemical connection

3. State the most important outcome as a conclusion of the biochemical connection.

Questions
4. How would low oxygen levels affect the production of ATP? If Natalie has low levels

of NADH, how would her production of ATP be affected?
5. Natalie’s low O2 gives her only a 24% efficiency of ATP production from glucose.

How many moles of ATP would she obtain from 25 g of glucose if glucose has a
molar mass of 180.2 g/mole?

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTION #28.

1. State briefly the purpose of the biochemical connection ( no more than 250 words)

2. Report three of the main findings of the biochemical connection

3. State the most important outcome as a conclusion of the biochemical connection.

Questions
4. What does “epigenetics” and “epimutation” mean?
5. What is the link between epigenetics and cancer? What is the epigenetic change

that Peleg studied with respect to aging mice?

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTION #29.

1. State briefly the purpose of the biochemical connection ( no more than 250 words)

2. Report three of the main findings of the biochemical connection

3. State the most important outcome as a conclusion of the biochemical connection.

Questions
4. Why would IAV evolve to be less lethal?
5. Explain how a frameshift in reading mRNA affects the translation of the mRNA for

the IAV viral protease.

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTION #30.

1. State briefly the purpose of the biochemical connection ( no more than 250 words)

2. Report three of the main findings of the biochemical connection

3. State the most important outcome as a conclusion of the biochemical connection.

Questions
4. What species excrete excess nitrogen as ammonia? Which ones excrete it as uric

acid?
5. Would you expect an ostrich to excrete excess nitrogen as uric acid, urea, or

ammonia? Make an argument for your answer

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTION #31.

1. State briefly the purpose of the biochemical connection ( no more than 250 words)

2. Report three of the main findings of the biochemical connection

3. State the most important outcome as a conclusion of the biochemical connection.

Questions

4. Draw the condensed structural formulas for the products of the reaction of alanine

and α-ketoglutarate, which is catalyzed by alanine transaminase (ALT). Explain the
reaction.

5. Draw the condensed structural formulas for the products of the reaction of aspartate
and α-ketoglutarate, which is catalyzed by aspartate transaminase (AST). Explain
the reaction.

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