HEAT OF NEUTRALIZATION
COURSE CH181 NAME___________________________________
The objective of this experiment is to determine the heat (intensive) evolved from a reaction of acid and base.
SAFETY: Acids and bases are corrosive. Wash hands before leaving the lab. Wear eye protection if wearing contact lenses.
INTRODUCTION: In today’s experiment, you will measure the heat generated from a strong acid reacting with a strong base. Refer to your textbook for definitions of acids and bases. The reaction proceeds:
ACID + BASE SALT + WATER + heat
Example: HA (aq) + MOH (aq) MA (aq) + H2O (l) + heat (molecular)
H+(aq) + OH–(aq) H2O (l) + heat (net ionic)
H3O+(aq) + OH–(aq) 2H2O (l) + heat (net ionic)
The moles of reactant are given via molarity. Molarity (moles solute)/(liter of solution). Therefore, to determine the molarity of a reactant, multiply the concentration unit, molarity, by the amount of liters used (convert mL to L).
MOLES OF REACTANT = (MOLARITY OF REACTANT)(LITERS OF SOLUTION)
Example: given 25 mL of a 4.0 M ammonia = 0.10 moles NH3.
The acid ion reacts with the hydroxide ion to form water. This is an exothermic process. The reaction is open to the atmosphere which supplies a constant pressure process. Changes in enthalpy for exothermic reactions are always negative. The heat is picked up by the solution causing the solution temperature to rise. The transfer of energy is
The solution’s heat increase may be expressed as:
Since the solution is mostly water it is reasonable that the solution’s heat capacity nearly equals the heat capacity for water (1.00 calorie/(g∙oC)). Specifically, it takes 1.00 calorie of energy to raise the temperature of one gram of water from 14.5 oC to 15.5 oC. Note that 4.184 joules is equal in energy to 1.00 calorie. As an example, an exothermic reaction in 500-mL of mostly aqueous solution at 25.0 oC produces 92.3 kilojoules of heat. Determine the final temperature of the solution.
Therefore, H = -92.3 kJ and “q” of the solution picks up 92,300 J.
92,300 J = (~500 g)(4.184 )(Tf – 25.0 oC)
Solving for Tf, the final temperature is 69.1 oC. This same equation may be used to calculate the change in enthalpy when the initial and final solution temperatures are known.
PROCEDURES: Watch the following video to obtain data for this experiment: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PJRhLVnfQUo&t=6s
Make Reactant concentrations as specified by the instructor (written on the chalkboard). Use volumetric ware for solution preparations and dilutions. Enter the name and the concentrations with correct significant figures in the table below.
NAME OF ACID
NAME OF BASE
- Use a graduated cylinder to measure 100 mL of acid. Add a stir bean (a Teflon coated magnet) to a foam cup for mixing the solution. Record the mass of the foam cup and stir bean.
Use a 400-gram balance! Mass of the foam cup and stir bean _________________ g.
- Pour the acid solution into the foam cup with stir bean (to be used as a calorimeter). Use the standard thermometer from your drawer for temperature readings. NOTE: YOUR TEMPERATURE READINGS SHOULD BE REPORTED TO A TENTH OF A DEGREE (EITHER XX.X oC). After addition of the acid to the cup, wait several minutes to allow the temperature to equilibrate (the temperature remains constant).
- Use a clean, dry graduated cylinder to measure 1.01 x 102-mL of base (you can estimate the 1-mL over a hundred in the graduated cylinder or 50.0 mL + 51.0 mL for a fifty-milliliter graduated cylinder). The extra base will ensure the acid is the limiting reagent. Add the base solution to the acid solution and start timing. Not all the base will transfer into the acid container; is this important?
- Two students, working together can monitor time and temperature. One student shall monitor time telling the other student every thirty seconds to note the temperature. Collect data until the temperature has dropped at least five degrees from the maximum-recorded temperature. Essentially, the reaction was over as soon as the base was added. Due to a lag in the thermal response of the thermometer, the peak temperature was missed. Plot your data and extrapolate back to the line of mixing (start time) to obtain the peak temperature. An example is provided. Record the mass of the foam cup, stir bean and total solution.
(Use 400-gram balance!) Mass of the foam cup, stir bean, and total solution ________________ g.
Specific heat capacity for water
- Graphically determine the maximum temperature. ______ oC
2) Initial temperature ______ oC
- Determine T (maximum)[#1- #2] ______ oC
- Calculate the mass of the product solution _______ g
Since the product mass is mostly water:
- Determine qwater in kJ = (Swater)(masssolution)(T)(1kJ/1000J) _______ kJ
- Determine enthalpy change Hrxn (constant pressure) ________kJ
- Calculate the number of moles of (limiting) acid reacted ______ mol
- Convert reaction energy to an intensive property (#6/#7) ______kJ/mol
- Write the molecular reaction and write the net ionic reaction.
Molecular reaction of run 1:
Net ionic reaction of run 1:
- From the table of Hof in the text calculate the Hrxn for the net ionic reaction
Literature (textbook value)
- Calculate the percent error100% ______ %
Temperature change with time for Heat of Neutralization
~ room temperature
- What is the final temperature of 13,400 liters of water at 23.200 oC if 200,900 kJ of heat was removed?
LINE OF MIXING