Limiting Reactant in A Chemical Equation Lab Report

13.9 Experiment 12 Protocol & Data – Liming Reagent(READ) Experiment 12 Narrated Video to walk you through the lab – this is experiment 10 from the lab manual https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eab6KDNeJac&feature=youtu.be https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2x0FyLUOTCI&feature=youtu.be This assignment will include all portions of: Experiment 10: Green Limiting Reagent Please be prepared to: 1. Type in your pre-lab questions directly to this assignment for grading 2. Upload your lab manual pages. 3. Type in your data 4. Type in your post-lab questions directly to this assignment. Please use a mobile scanner app to take multiple pictures that are saved as a single pdf. Multiple files are not allowed. You are allowed two chances to take this untimed assignment. Your answers will not be saved if you re-enter the assignment. please check the three files I attached and do the date entry and lab Manual

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Background

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Data Sheet: Limiting Reagent

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Experiment 10: Green Limiting Reagent – Supplied Data

mass Na2CO3 + beaker (g)

37.139

mass beaker (g)

36.1314

  

mass CaCl2* 2 H2O + beaker (g)

48.9836

mass beaker (g)

47.3314

weight of filter paper (g)

0.4921

weight of watch glass (g)

4.0108

weight of filter paper, watch glass and precipitate 1st drying (g)

6.0653

weight of filter paper, watch glass and precipitate 2nd drying (g)

5.9945

Question 1

A student weighs out 1.100 grams of copper(II) chloride dihydrate and 3.500 grams of silver nitrate and follows a similar experiment procedure to this one.

a. Complete the table below

formula

CuCl2*2H2O

AgNO3

molar mass

 g/mol

 g/mol

 

Please use 2 decimal places and g/mol as units

Question 2

A student weighs out 1.100 grams of copper(II) chloride dihydrate and 3.500 grams of silver nitrate and follows a similar experiment procedure to this one.

b. Calculate the moles of copper(II) chloride dihydrate

[blank1] mol CuCl2 * 2 H2O

Please use 6 decimal places and no units

Question 3

A student weighs out 1.100 grams of copper(II) chloride dihydrate and 3.500 grams of silver nitrate and follows a similar experiment procedure to this one.

c. Calculate the moles of copper(II) chloride from the moles of copper(II) chloride dihydrate using a molar ratio.

[blank1] mol CuCl2

Please use 6 decimal places and no units 

 

Question 4

A student weighs out 1.100 grams of copper(II) chloride dihydrate and 3.500 grams of silver nitrate and follows a similar experiment procedure to this one.

d. What happens to the water of hydration when the solid dissolves?

The water of hydration becomes water in the[blank1].

Please state if the water becomes the solution or the solute.

 

 

Question 5

A student weighs out 1.100 grams of copper(II) chloride dihydrate and 3.500 grams of silver nitrate and follows a similar experiment procedure to this one.

e. Calculate the moles of silver nitrate

Please use 5 decimal places and g/mol as units 

Question 6

A student weighs out 1.100 grams of copper(II) chloride dihydrate and 3.500 grams of silver nitrate and follows a similar experiment procedure to this one.

f. Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction of copper(II) chloride and silver nitrate

 +  –>  + 

Please write the coefficient with the formula, along with the phase, eg. 2NaCl(aq) or 1Ca3(PO4)3(s) without spaces

 

Question 7

A student weighs out 1.100 grams of copper(II) chloride dihydrate and 3.500 grams of silver nitrate and follows a similar experiment procedure to this one.

g. Determine the limiting reagent by comparing the theoretical mole ratio to the actual mole ratio:

Complete the table below

Theoretical mole ratio

Actual mole ratio

Formula of the Limiting Reagent

m o l C u C l 2 ⋅ 2 H 2 O m o l A g N O 3 =

Please use 1 decimal place and no units

m o l C u C l 2 ⋅ 2 H 2 O m o l A g N O 3 =

Please use 4 decimal places and no units

  

Please write CuCl2*2H2O or AgNO3 as the limiting reagent

Question 8

A student weighs out 1.100 grams of copper(II) chloride dihydrate and 3.500 grams of silver nitrate and follows a similar experiment procedure to this one.

h.  Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction and complete the table below. Be sure to  use the correct number of significant figures. Remember that leading zeros are not considered significant.

Complete the table below

 

CuCl2(aq)

2AgNO3(aq)

Cu(NO3)2(aq)

2AgCl(s)

Initial moles

 mol 

Please use 6 decimal place and no units

 mol

Please use 5 decimal places and no units

0 mol

0 mol

Change moles

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End moles

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End moles numerical

Please use 6 decimal places and no units

 mol

 mol

 mol

 mol

Question 9

A student weighs out 1.100 grams of copper(II) chloride dihydrate and 3.500 grams of silver nitrate and follows a similar experiment procedure to this one.

h.  What does x equal

 mol

Please use 6 decimal places and no units

Question 10

A student weighs out 1.100 grams of copper(II) chloride dihydrate and 3.500 grams of silver nitrate and follows a similar experiment procedure to this one.

j. Calculate the molar masses for the products:

formula

Cu(NO3)Cl2

AgCl

molar mass

 g/mol

 g/mol

 

Please use 2 decimal places and no units

Question 11

A student weighs out 1.100 grams of copper(II) chloride dihydrate and 3.500 grams of silver nitrate and follows a similar experiment procedure to this one.

k.How many grams of precipitate can be collected

 g AgCl

Please use 3 decimal places and no units

Question 12

A student weighs out 1.100 grams of copper(II) chloride dihydrate and 3.500 grams of silver nitrate and follows a similar experiment procedure to this one.

l. If 0.8525 g of silver chloride is collected what is the percent yield

 %

Please use 2 decimal places and no units

Question 13

A student weighs out 1.100 grams of copper(II) chloride dihydrate and 3.500 grams of silver nitrate and follows a similar experiment procedure to this one.

m. How many grams of the excess reagent are left at the end of the reaction?

 g AgNO3

Please use 3 decimal places and no units

Question 14

Complete the table below

formula

Na2CO3

CaCl2*2H2O

CuCO3

NaCl

molar mass

 g/mol

 g/mol

 g/mol

 g/mol

Please use 2 decimal places and no units

Question 15

Please complete the table.

All masses should be recorded to 4 decimal places without units

Data

 

Assigned Letter

N/A

Spreadsheet ID

N/A

Actual weight of Na2COused

mass Na2CO3 + beaker=

 g

mass beaker =

 g

mass Na2CO=

 g

Describe the Na2CO3

 (please use color and phase, e.g. white solid or clear liquid)

Actual moles Na2CO3 used

 mol

Actual weight of CaCl2 • 2 H2O used

mass CaCl• 2 H2O + beaker =

 g

mass beaker =

 g

mass CaCl• 2 H2O =

 g

Describe the CaCl• 2 H2O

 (please use color and phase, e.g. white solid or clear liquid)

Actual moles CaCl• 2 H2O used

 mol

Actual moles CaCl2 used

 mol

Weight of filter paper

 g

Weight of watch glass

 g

Describe the wet CaCO3

 (please use color and phase, e.g. white solid or clear liquid)

Weight of filter paper, watch glass and precipitate 1st drying

 g

Weight of filter paper, watch glass and precipitate 2nd drying

 g

Question 16

Please complete the table.

All masses should be recorded to 4 decimal places without units

Complete the table below

 

Na2CO3(aq)

CaCl2(aq)

CuCO3(s)

2NaCl(aq)

Initial moles

 mol 

 mol

0 mol

0 mol

Change moles

Please write “+” or “-” and the #x, eg -2x, +1x

    

End moles

Please write the equation from the first two lines with no spaces (eg 0.00005-x or 0.1234+2x

  

   

End moles numerical

Please use 6 decimal places and no units

 mol

 mol

 mol

 mol

 

Question 17

A student weighs out 1.100 grams of copper(II) chloride dihydrate and 3.500 grams of silver nitrate and follows a similar experiment procedure to this one.

g. Determine the limiting reagent by comparing the theoretical mole ratio to the actual mole ratio:

Complete the table below

Theoretical mole ratio

Actual mole ratio

Formula of the Limiting Reagent

m o l C a C l 2 ⋅ 2 H 2 O m o l N a 2 C O 3 =

Please use 1 decimal place and no units

m o l C a C l 2 ⋅ 2 H 2 O m o l N a 2 C O 3 =

Please use 4 decimal places and no units

  

Please write CaCl2*2H2O or Na2CO3 as the limiting reagent

 

Question 18

Please complete the table.

All masses should be recorded to 4 decimal places without units

Results

 

Theoretical weight of CaCO3

 g

Actual weight of CaCOcollected

 g 

Describe the dried CaCO3

 g  (please use color and phase, e.g. white solid or clear liquid)

Percent Yield

 %

Question 19

Describe the effect on the actual yield and percent yield (increase, decrease, or no change), if the following errors occurred. 

a. The filter paper was still wet when the final product was weighed.

Please write one of the two words following the blank to answer the questions below:

The mass will seem  (higher or lower) than the actual due to the added mass of the water.  Therefore, both the actual and percent yield  (increase or decrease).

Question 20

Describe the effect on the actual yield and percent yield (increase, decrease, or no change), if the following errors occurred. 

b. Some product fell through the filter paper and was seen in the filter flask during the vacuum filtration.

Please write one of the two words following the blank to answer the questions below:

The lost product results in a    (increase or decrease) from the actual amount. Therefore, both the actual and percent yield will    (increase or decrease).

Question 21

Describe the effect on the actual yield and percent yield (increase, decrease, or no change), if the following errors occurred. 

b. Some product fell on the floor and was scraped up with some dust particles, and then weighed for the final mass.

Please write one of the two words following the blank to answer the questions below:

The mass is now    (greater or smaller)  than the actual mass due to the added dirt. Therefore, the actual and percent yield will     (increase or decrease).

Question 22

What are you to do with unused chemical in the lab?

Group of answer choices

unused chemicals should be placed either a waste container or a container labeled for excess waste or offered to another student.

unused chemicals should be thrown in the trash

you should never have unused chemicals in lab

unused chemicals should be placed in the trash

Question 23

In the reaction below 25.00 g of MnC12 is reacted with 100.0 g of PbO2, excess KCl, and excess  HCl.

2 KCl (aq) + 2 MnCl2 (aq) + 5 PbO2 (s) + 4 HCl (aq) –> 2 KMnO4 (aq) + 5 PbCl2 (s) + 2 H2O (l)

 

R

2 MnCl2 (aq)

+ 5 PbO2 (s)

–> 2 KMnO4 (aq)

I

Please use 4 decimal place and no units

 mol

 mol

C

Please write “+” or “-” and the #x, eg -2x, +1x

   

E

(Please write the final number you get here, 4 decimal places, no units)

 mol

 mol

 mol

 

Theoretical mole ratio

Actual mole ratio

Formula of the Limiting Reagent

m o l P b O 2 m o l M n C l 2 =

Please use 1 decimal place and no units

m o l P b O 2 m o l M n C l 2 =

Please use 3 decimal places and no units

  

Please write PbO2 or MnCl2 as the limiting reagent

Please use 2 decimal place and no units for the following answers:

a. How many grams of KMnOcan be produced by this reaction?   g

b. If 21.42 g of KMnO4 is actually produced, what is the percent yield?  %

c. How many grams of what starting substances will be left over after the reaction?  g

d. How many grams of what starting substance (i.e., MnCl2 or PbO2) must be added to the

original quantities of reactants so that there will be neither PbO2 nor MnC12 left over

after the reaction?  

Question 245 pts

Please upload your pre-lab, data, with work, and your post lab questions. 

Please upload as a single pdf or document.

 

13.9 Experiment 12 Protocol & Data – Liming Reagent(READ)

Experiment 12

Narrated Video to walk you through the lab – this is experiment 10 from the lab manual

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eab6KDNeJac&feature=youtu.be

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2x0FyLUOTCI&feature=youtu.be

This assignment will include all portions of:

Experiment 10: Green Limiting Reagent

Please be prepared to:

1. Type in your pre-lab questions directly to this assignment for grading

2. Upload your lab manual pages. 

3. Type in your data

4. Type in your post-lab questions directly to this assignment. 

Please use a mobile scanner app to take multiple pictures that are saved as a single pdf. Multiple files are not allowed. 

You are allowed two chances to take this untimed assignment. Your answers will not be saved if you re-enter the assignment. 

13.7 Experiment 12 Background – Limiting Reagent (READ)

Experiment 11

This experiment is Lab 10 from the Lab Manual. All data will be provided to you. 

Double replacement reactions are generally considered to be irreversible. The formation of an insoluble precipitate provides a driving force that makes the reaction proceed in one direction only. The purpose of this demonstration is to find the optimum mole ratio for the formation of a precipitate in a double replacement reaction and use this information to predict the chemical formula of the precipitate.

Limiting Reagents 

In a chemical reaction, the limiting reagent is the reactant that determines how much of the products are made. The other reactants are sometimes referred to as being in excess, since there will be some leftover after the limiting reagent is completely used up.

The first and most important step for any stoichiometric calculation—such as finding the limiting reagent or theoretical yield—is to start with a balanced reaction! Since our calculations use ratios based on the stoichiometric coefficients, our answers will be incorrect if the stoichiometric coefficients are not right.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rESzyhPOJ7I&feature=youtu.be

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rESzyhPOJ7I&feature=youtu.be

Example 

Example:

For the following reaction, what is the limiting reagent if we start with 2.80g of Al and 4.25g of Cl2​? What is the theoretical yield (in grams) of AlClthat the reaction can produce?

Al(s) + Cl2(g) –> AlCl3(s)

First, let’s check if our reaction is balanced.It’s not, so let’s balance it.

2Al(s) + 3Cl2(g) –> 2AlCl3(s)

Second, convert knowns to your product. Our knowns are grams of Al and Cl2. Here, we are given a AlClas our product in grams. .   

2.80gAl⋅(1molAl26.98gAl)⋅(2molAlCl32molAl)(133.34gAlCl31moleAlCl3)=13.83gAlCl32.80gAl⋅(1molAl26.98gAl)⋅(2molAlCl32molAl)(133.34gAlCl31moleAlCl3)=13.83gAlCl3

4.25gCl2⋅(1moleCl270.90gCl2)⋅(1molAlCl32moleCl)(133.34gAlCl31molAlCl3)=3.99gAlCl34.25gCl2⋅(1moleCl270.90gCl2)⋅(1molAlCl32moleCl)(133.34gAlCl31molAlCl3)=3.99gAlCl3

Third, find the limiting reagent and identify which equation to use. 

3.99 g < 13.83 g therefore the Cl2 is our limiting reagent. 

Limiting Reagent: Cl2

Excess Reagent: Al

Theoretical yield of AlCl3 made: 3.99 g AlCl3

 

How to find how much excess there is leftover?

React the limiting to the excess and subtract from the original amount. 

 

4.25gCl2⋅(1molCl270.90gCl2)⋅(2molAl3molCl2)⋅(26.98gAl1molAl)=1.078gAl4.25gCl2⋅(1molCl270.90gCl2)⋅(2molAl3molCl2)⋅(26.98gAl1molAl)=1.078gAl

1.078 g Al was used, to find how much is left over 

2.80 g Al (starting) – 1.08 g Al used = 1.72 g Al leftover

 

Let’s see what we did here.  We identified:

  • the limiting reagent (LR) = Cl2
  • the excess reagent (ER) = Al
  • how much product was made =  3.99 g AlCl3
  • how much LR was leftover = 0 (always!)
  • how much ER was leftover =  1.72 g 

 

 

Percent Yield

In a chemical reaction, the limiting reagent is the reactant that determines how much of the products are made. The other reactants are sometimes referred to as being in excess, since there will be some leftover after the limiting reagent is completely used up. The maximum amount of product that can be produced is called the theoretical yield.

percentyield=acutalyieldtheoreticalyield⋅100percentyield=acutalyieldtheoreticalyield⋅100

 

You can also think of it like this:

percentyield=experimentalyieldwhatyougetfromstoichiometry⋅100percentyield=experimentalyieldwhatyougetfromstoichiometry⋅100

 

 

Practice on your own:

 

1) Consider the following reaction: 3 NH4NO3 + Na3PO4 → (NH4)3PO4 + 3 NaNO3; and answer the questions below, assuming we started with 30.0 grams of ammonium nitrate and 50.0 grams of sodium phosphate.

a) Which of the reagents is the limiting reagent?

b) What is the maximum amount of each product that can be formed?

c) How much of the other reagent is left over after the reaction is complete?

2) Consider the following reaction:3 CaCO3 + 2 FePO4 → Ca3(PO4)2 + Fe2(CO3)3; and answer the questions below, assuming we start with 100.0 grams of calcium carbonate and 45.0 grams of iron (III) phosphate.

a) Which of the reagents is the limiting reagent?

b) What is the maximum amount of each product that can be formed?

c) How much of the other reagent is left over after the reaction is complete?

3) Balance this equation and state which of the six types of reaction is taking place:

____ Mg + ____ HNO3 → ____ Mg(NO3)2 + ____ H2

a) If I start this reaction with 40. grams of magnesium and an excess of nitric acid, how many grams of hydrogen gas will I produce?

b) If 1.70 grams of hydrogen is actually produced, what was my percent yield of hydrogen?

4)  Balance this equation and state what type of reaction is taking place: 

____ NaHCO3 → ____ NaOH + ____ CO2

a) If 25.0 grams of carbon dioxide gas is produced in this reaction, how many grams of sodium hydroxide should be produced?

b) If 50.0 grams of sodium hydroxide are actually produced, what was my percent yield?

Answers 

1) ammonium nitrate, 18.6 grams of ammonium phosphate, 31.9 grams of sodium nitrate, 29.5 grams of sodium phosphate

2) iron (III) phosphate, 46.3 grams of calcium phosphate, 43.8 grams of iron (III) carbonate, 54.0 grams of calcium carbonate

3) 1 Mg + 2 HNO3 → 1 Mg(NO3)2 + 1 H2; single displacement; 3.3 g; 52% yield

4) 1 NaHCO3 → 1 NaOH + 1 CO2; decomposition; 22.7 grams NaOH; 50.0/22.7 x 100% = 220.%;  Hopefully, you understand that this is not a reasonable answer to this question and indicates that something very wrong happened during this reaction. 

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