The exam will consist of 20 multiple choice questions with 70% “C” questions, 20% “B” questions, and 10% “A” questions. In general, “C” questions are those involving the most basic concepts, particularly ones that you have used before. “C” calculation problems typically involve one major step with 1-2 more minor steps. (Examples of minor steps would be calculating molecular weights or converting [H_{3}O^{+}] to pH.) “B” questions involve more difficult concepts, particularly ones that are new. “B” calculation questions typically involve at least two major steps with 1-4 minor steps. “A” questions are those involving the most difficult concepts or those that require a thorough understanding in order to answer correctly. Often “A” questions require bringing together different concepts to solve the problem and 2+ calculation steps. Note also that concepts listed under the “C” or “B” categories below can be converted to harder questions, depending on how the question is asked.

# Background Concepts [Homework Examples; *similar questions in italic that weren’t previously assigned*]

**Know the molecular formulas and charges of common ions.**[Common Ion handout]- Calculate molar mass, convert between grams and moles using the molar mass. [Problem Set 1]
- Calculate concentrations in molarity, convert between liters and moles using molarity. [Problem Set 1, Quiz 2]
- Calculate concentrations after dilution. [Exp. 2]
- Be able to balance chemical reactions and determine net ionic equations. [Quiz 2]
- Determine reaction quotient expression for a given reaction. [13.15, Quiz 2]
- Identify Bronsted acids, bases and conjugate acid-base pairs. [14.7, 14.9, Problem Set 2, Quiz 2]
- Convert back and forth between [H
_{3}O^{+}],[OH ], pH and pOH with correct sig. figs. [14.17, 14.21,

14.25, Exp. 3, Quiz 3]

- Know the strong bases (OH salts) and the 6 strong acids (HCl, HBr, HI, HNO
_{3}, HClO_{4}, H_{2}SO_{4}). [part of 14.28] - Calculate pH of strong acid, strong base solutions. [14.19, Problem Set 3, Quiz 3]
- Calculate pH (or pOH, [H
_{3}O^{+}],[OH ]) of a weak acid or base solution knowing Ka or Kb and the initial concentration. [14.69, 14.71, Quiz 3] - Recognize molecular weak acids (carboxylic acids and inorganic weak acids) and molecular weak bases (NH
_{3}and amines) [worksheet 1, part of 14.28] - Be able to recognize ionic acids and bases. [worksheet 1, part of 14.28, 14.78, 14.79]

# “C” Questions [Examples]

- Convert between Ka and Kb values for conjugate acid-base pairs. [quiz 4’s]
- Calculate pKa’s. [quiz 4’s]
- Know what a buffer solution is, what it does (resists changes in pH) and how it works. [quiz 4’s,

14.87]

- Calculate pH of a buffer solution using Henderson-Hasselbach equation. [quiz 4’s, 14.97, 14.101a,b]
- Determine the ratio of acid:base needed for making a buffer solution at a certain pH. [quiz 4’s, 14.99]
- Know what will be a good acid,base pair to make a buffer solution of a certain pH. [quiz 4’s, 14.103,

14.105]

- Know that for a conjugate acid base pair, if pH = pKa then [base] = [acid], if pH > pKa then [base] > [acid], and if pH < pKa then [base] < [acid]. Use these relationships to predict whether the acid or base form of a given conjugate acid/base pair will dominate at a particular pH. [quiz 4’s]
- Calculate the equivalence point for an acid-base titration. [PS 4, quiz 5’s]
- Predict what will be in solution at different points during a pH titration.[PS 4, quiz 5’s]
- Know expected differences in the shape of a pH titration curve for strong acid-strong base, weak acidstrong base, strong acid-weak base.
- Calculate pH’s at different points on a strong acid/strong base titration curve. [PS 4, quiz 5’s]
- Write out the Ksp expression for a solubility equilibria [quiz 5’s,15.9]
- Calculate Ksp from solubility data [old quiz 5’s, 15.11]
- Calculate solubility from Ksp. [quiz 5’s, 15.13]
- Calculate the solubility of an ionic compound in the presence of another source of one of the ions. [15.15]
- Know what complex ions are and be able to write out the formation rxn and Kf expression. [Exp. 5]
- Understand LeChatelier’s Principle
- Predict how solubility of an ionic compound changes upon addition of another source of one of the ions (common ion effect), an acid (can react with basic anion), or a ligand that can form a complex ion with the metal cation. [old quiz 6’s and exam 2’s,15.111,15.113]
- Use the simplified solubility rules presented in lecture to predict if a precipitate will likely form when solutions of two ionic compounds are mixed. [S19Ex2a.11, F19Ex2a.5]
- Know what enthalpy and entropy are. Which direction of change is favorable for each?
- What is an exothermic rxn? What is an endothermic rxn? What is the sign of ∆H for each?
- Know the 3 Laws of Thermodynamics
- Predict the sign of ΔS for physical processes and chemical reactions. [S20 quiz 6; 16.17]
- Predict the relative order of S° values based on physical state, size and molecular complexity [16.1 • Calculate ΔS° values from S° values. [S20 quiz 6, 16.29]
- Calculate ΔH° values from H
_{f}° values. - Know how to calculate ΔG° from G
_{f}° values, or ΔH_{f}° and S° values. [16.31, 16.33] - Make predictions about how the “favorability” of a reaction will change with temperature based on the signs of ΔH° and ΔS°. [16.31, 16.65, S20Ex2.19]
- Calculate K from ΔG°, and ΔG° from K. [16.39, 16.41]

# “B” Questions [Examples]

- Calculate pH of a solution of a cationic weak acid or anionic weak base knowing Kb or Ka of their neutral conjugates and the initial concentration. [PS 4]
- Calculate pH’s at different points on a weak acid/strong base or weak base/strong acid titration curve. [PS 4, quiz 5’s]
- Determine the pKa of a weak acid from a titration curve. [Exp. 4]
- Predict whether a precipitate will form using Ksp. [quiz 6’s, 15.31, 15.37, 15.40]
- Understand the difference between ΔG (determines the direction of spontaneous change at any point in a reaction) and ΔG° (related to the overall favorability of the reaction and K). What has to be true

for a spontaneous process? What has to be true at equilibrium?

Concepts listed under the “C” category can be converted to B questions by combining them and/or requiring a better understanding of the concept in order to be solved.

# “A” Questions [ Examples]

- More complicated questions involving buffers, such as determining how much strong acid or strong base should be added to a solution of a weak base or weak acid to make a buffer solution of a certain pH, or what will be the pH after adding strong acid or base. [S19ex2a.13, F19Ex2a.9, F19ex2b.17,

14.101,14.107]

- More complicated questions involving solubility equilibria.
- More complicated problems involving the relationship between pH, pKa and base/acid ratio. [S19ex2a.13; S20ex2.4]
- Less obvious questions involving the relationship between K and ΔG° [S20ex2.20]

Concepts listed under the “C” or “B” categories can be converted to A questions by combining them and/or asking the question in such a way that the route to the answer is not straightforward and requires a thorough understanding of the concepts.

Information that will be given with exam:

Periodic Table; Henderson-Hasselbach equation; Chap. 16 eqns; Table of Ka and Kb values; Other K’s and thermodynamic values as needed.

Equations you need to know:

[H_{3}O^{+}][OH^{−}] = Kw = 1.008×10^{−14}; pH + pOH = 13.9965 pH = −log[H_{3}O^{+}]; pOH = −log[OH^{−}]

[H_{3}O^{+}] = 10^{−pH}; [OH^{−}] = 10^{−pOH}