- Lord Rayleigh and Ramsay both won Noble Prizes in 1904 for the discovery of argon. Ramsey and his student Morris Travers identified three new elements-neon, krypton, and xenon-in only three months. Three new elements in three months is a record that may never be broken! Make a video describing how the noble gases, which helped complete the periodic table, were discovered.
- Microwave ovens have become a ubiquitous appliance. Microwave technology enables us to thaw and heat food much more rapidly than conventional appliances do. We learned that microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation that are generated by a magnetron. Make a video explaining how microwaves heat food so quickly and describe the interaction between the electric field component of the radiation with the polar and non-polar molecules present in food.
- Pick one of the two phenomena below.
If you are an avid downhill skier, you have probably skied on artificial snow. How is this stuff made in quantities large enough to meet the needs of skiers on snowless days? Make a video explaining the secret of snow making and how it relates to the equation ∆E = q + W. Also, if you ever pumped air into a bicycle tire, you probably noticed a warming effect at the valve stem. Make a video explaining this phenomenon using the first law of thermodynamics.
- Magnesium is a valuable lightweight metal used as a structure material as well as in alloys, batteries and chemical synthesis. Magnesium forms the second most abundant cation in the sea; there are about 1.3g of magnesium in a kilogram of seawater. Make a video describing the process for obtaining magnesium from seawater that employs all three reactions discussed in this chapter: precipitation, acid-base, and redox reactions.
- Humans breathe about 20 times per minute! Make a video explaining how the gas laws apply to respiration.
- Scuba diving is an exhilarating sport and thanks in part to the gas laws, it is also a safe activity for trained individuals. Make a video explaining how applications of the gas laws are important for returning safely to the surface after a dive to prevent potentially fatal conditions during the dive.
- The electron microscope is an extremely valuable application of the wavelike properties of electrons because it produces images of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye or with light microscope. In principle, we can see objects on the atomic and molecular scale by using X rays, whose wavelengths range from about 0.01nm to 10nm. However, X rays cannot be focused, so they do not produce well-formed images. Make a video explaining how electron microscopy works based on De Broglie’s equation.
- Our stomachs contain a solution of roughly 0.03 M HCl. The burning sensation associated with heartburn is a result of the acid in the stomach reaching the esophagus that is not protected from the corrosive effects of stomach acid. When we experience heartburn we take antacids, of which the most common antacid is calcium carbonate. Make a video describing the reaction of calcium carbonate with the HCl in our stomach. What might cause belching when we take antacids?
- In December 1998, NASA launched the 125-million dollar Mars Climate Orbiter, intended as the red planet’s first weather satellite. After a 416-million mile journey, the spacecraft entered Mars’ atmosphere 100 km (62 miles) lower than planned and was destroyed by heat. Make a video explaining how the loss of the spacecraft was due to the failure of converting units!!
- Limestone (CaCO3) which is widespread on Earth’s surface, often enters the water supply. However, in the presence of dissolved carbon dioxide, calcium carbonate is converted to soluble calcium bicarbonate. What’s the reaction? When water containing Ca+2 and HCO3- ions is heated or boiled, the solution reaction is reversed to produce CaCO3 precipitate. Solid calcium carbonate is the main component of the scale that accumulates in boilers, pipes and teakettles. Make a video describing the method used to remove scale deposits? Explain the reaction.
- Make a video discussing three examples of practices related to chemistry used in your family’s kitchen and explain each one in detail!
Nitrogen Density Microwaves & First Law of Thermodynamics Questions