Psychology Quiz 75 Multiple Choice- 3 HOURS ONLY TIMED TEST-CHEMISTRY MAJORS ONLY

Psychology Quiz

What is the difference between primary and secondary (also called complex) emotions?

Select one:

a. Primary emotions are easier to accept and manage than secondary (complex) emotions

b. Primary emotions are easier to determine from facial expressions

c. Secondary emotions are comprised of primary emotions

d. Secondary emotions are easier to accept and manage than primary emotions

e. There is no difference

f. A and B

Question text

After presenting groups of research participants words like threadeyepinsyringesewingsharp, and thimble, a memory researcher asks the participants whether they remember seeing the word needle. The fact that many participants do is an example of

Select one:

a. déjà vu.

b. permastore.

c. memory illusion.

d. amnesia.

Question text

Label each example as (a) state-dependent learning, or (b) context-dependent learning

An individual studies extensively in his dorm room at night and has a fair understanding of the material.  When he enters the classroom a few days later during the morning to take a test on what he studied, he struggles to remember it as wellAnswer 1
An individual remembers what she learned more accurately when she is in the same classroom that she learned it inAnswer 2
An individual comes home from the bar and studies for an Intro to Psychology test while drinking alcohol heavily.  Although she does not recall everything she studied after she sobers up, she exhibits more accurate memory after becoming intoxicated again.Answer 3
An individual easily finds his way to his friend’s house after a night of partying (using cannabis and alcohol) on numerous occasions, but is not able to fully remember how to get there during times he is “not partying”Answer 4

Question text

Julio served in the war in Iraq and was severely traumatized when a rocket-propelled grenade exploded next to his Humvee. Recently, Julio was studying in the library and a large book fell off a high shelf and banged on the floor. The noise brought Julio instantly to his feet. In terms of classical conditioning, his response can best be explained by _____.

Select one:

a. reinforcement

b. negative reflex

c. stimulus generalization

d. spontaneous recovery

Question text

A reinforcer is a consequence that _____ a behavior, while a punisher is a consequence that _____ a behavior.

Select one:

a. strengthens; weakens

b. motivates; stimulates

c. weakens; strengthens

d. inhibits; motivates

The idea that muscles in the face send information to the brain, affecting the emotion we feel, is known as the

Select one:

a. two-factor theory.

b. facial feedback hypothesis.

c. James-Lange theory.

d. Cannon-Bard theory.

Question text

Which one of the following examples best illustrates hindsight bias?

Select one:

a. An individual is certain that her own study method is more effective than other methods, so she tends to look for evidence to support her method and disregards any evidence that conflicts with it.

b. An individual who manages a retail store. determines how likely it will be busy on certain holiday weekends by remembering how busy it was the previous two years.

c. An individual gives a presentation of a report with some faulty conclusions and which she did not notice, but later when questioned about those errors claims he did know of the faulty conclusions but claims he planned to discuss them privately with his supervisor.

d. An individual assumes that her neighbor’s dog will be vicious because she has been attacked by another similar sized dog three years ago.

Question text

State-dependent learning is superior for retrieval of information when the organism

Select one:

a. is very relaxed.

b. is highly motivated to perform.

c. stores information while very emotional.

d. is in the same state as it was during encoding.

Question text

One of the leading reasons for the conviction of innocent persons is

Select one:

a. police corruption.

b. faulty eyewitness identification.

c. racial prejudice.

d. biased prosecutors.

Question text

What is/are the problem(s) with non-scientific theories of learning?

Select one:

a. They appear to explain differences in how individuals learn, but are not fully supported by solid evidence

b. They are too general, and lack the specificity needed to be a valid explanation

c. They make it too difficult for teachers to make lesson plans that work for all students

d. They do not follow the principles of scientific thinking, and thus leave room for logical fallacies to occur

e. A and D

f. A and C

Dr. James advises that if you study for your next psychology exam in the same room where you take the exam, your score will improve. He is basing this advice on

Select one:

a. state-dependent learning.

b. context-dependent learning.

c. familiarity schemas.

d. recognition specificity.

Question text

Which of the following provides the best explanation for why your history teacher can remember 14 random historic dates, while you can only recall about 7?

Select one:

a. Retroactive interference

b. Magic Number

c. Limited short-term memory capacity

d. Chunking

Question text

Which of the following is NOT accurate/true about language acquisition during childhood?

Select one:

a. It begins before birth, when the mother is about five months pregnant

b. Babbling is how infants learn to their vocal cords and produce basic sounds

c. The time frames in which the various stages of language acquisition occur often vary significantly between individuals

d. If language learning is delayed for any period at all, the individual will never be able to achieve fully developed language skills

e. Children understand individual words before they are capable of producing language

f. None of the above

question

Question text

When presented with the question, “What were the causes or factors that led to the French and Indian war in the US?” a person would be using what type of intelligence

Select one:

a. Historical Intelligence

b. General Intelligence

c. Factual Intelligence

d. Fluid Intelligence

e. Crystallized Intelligence

f. Specific Intelligence

Question text

The part of the brain where the emotional components of memories are stored is called the _____.

Select one:

a. amygdala

b. corpus callosum

c. hypothalamus

d. reticular formation

The main benefit of cognitive economy is

Select one:

a. The avoidance of stereotypes

b. Reduction in the use of mental energy

c. Increased accuracy because less mental energy is used

d. The ability to seek out better evidence

e. The ability to learn more schemas

Question text

Match the each example to the appropriate type of intelligence presented in Sternberg’s Triarchic model.

An individual uses logic to excel at a standardized SAT testAnswer 1
An individual enjoys writing poetry, and this is easy for herAnswer 2
An individual excels at developing advertisements that effectively target specific populationsAnswer 3
An individual excels at developing new ways to solve problems, especially those related to composing a new piece of musicAnswer 4
An individual excels at traditional academic studies due to her above average ability to reason logicallyAnswer 5
An individual is very good with people, and understands how to interact with others in a positive wayAnswer 6

Question text

Linda’s 3-month-old infant keeps saying “ga-ga” and “doh-doh.” Should she be worried?

Select one:

a. No; this behavior is called babbling and it is normal for infants.

b. Maybe; her 3-month-old should be saying at least a couple of words by now.

c. No, although the infant should start to string these syllables together to form words in the next month or two.

d. Yes; parents should not encourage nonsense language in their infants, because it can lead to language problems later on.

question

Question text

What problem-solving strategies are essentially mental shortcuts?

Select one:

a. Mnemonic devices

b. Cognitive biases

c. Heuristics

d. Algorithms

question

Question text

Who is being driven by intrinsic motivation?

Select one:

a. Matt, who is dying to win the trophy he sees behind the podium

b. Kip, who is working for a promotion and a raise at his job

c. Kira, who enjoys running marathons for the challenge

d. Lucia, who hopes to earn a scholarship for college so her parents won’t have to pay for her tuition

Which of the following is true concerning Accelerated Learning techniques?

Select one:

a. Students who employ relaxed breathing techniques appear to learn more quickly than those students who do not use these techniques.

b. Playing classical music for students appears to increase their rates of learning.

c. Research concerning suggestive learning techniques does not provide strong evidence supporting the effectiveness of these techniques.

d. Asking students to visualize information that they are learning appears to increase their rates of learning.

Question text

Which statement accurately describes primary emotions?

Select one:

a. They are learned through trial and error

b. They are believed to be innate

c. They occur regardless of the situation or context

d. They happen after other emotions are experienced

e. B and C

f. A and C

Question text

Which subdivision of the cortex is most active on tasks involving planning, impulse-control, and short-term memory?

Select one:

a. Parietal cortex

b. Occipital cortex

c. Temporal lobes

d. Prefrontal cortex

g question

Question text

Which of the following principles of critical thinking represents one of the difficulties with Gardner’s theory of intelligence?

Select one:

a. Accuracy

b. Falsifiability

c. Diversity

d. Replicability

Question text

Match the following examples with the type of learning that it demonstrates.

A child learns to act aggressively by watching his older brother picks fights with othersAnswer 1
An individual figures out how to escape from prison by thinking about it extensively, even though he does not make an attemptAnswer 2
An individual really dislikes getting up early to get to school on time yet does enjoy learning and school activities once he gets thereAnswer 3

According to your authors, which cognitive heuristic is most salient in the formation of stereotypes?

Select one:

a. The representativeness heuristic

b. The availability heuristic

c. The door-in-the-face bias

d. Thin slicing

Question text

What is the difference between the discrete emotions theory and the cognitive theories of emotion?

Select one:

a. They both agree that emotions are biological in nature, and support successful evolution, but they disagree how this happens

b. The discrete emotions theory suggests that emotions are less visible than the cognitive theories of emotion

c. The cognitive theories of emotion suggest that cognition/thought is a key factor in emotions, while the discrete emotions theory suggests that emotions are innate and automatic

d. The cognitive theories of emotion suggests that individuals experience emotions automatically, while the discrete emotions theory suggests that emotions must be discussed

e. The cognitive theories of emotion suggest that humans are born with all of our emotions, while the discrete emotion theory suggests that some emotions are learned

f. D and E

question

Question text

Because our snap judgments are probably “good bets,” the tendency to use heuristics and intuition might be considered

Select one:

a. too risky to use.

b. adaptive.

c. a maladaptation.

d. a failure of cognitive miserliness.

question

Question text

According to operant conditioning, which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement?

Select one:

a. A student turns in much neater homework after the teacher praises his effort at neatness

b. A student is sent to detention for fighting with other students after class

c. A student loses her earned free time after being caught playing with the science lab equipment

d. A student is excused from taking a difficult quiz due to submitting superior homework  for three weeks in a row

Question text

Because Ken’s history professor was a college student during the 1970s, he has extraordinary insight and knowledge of facts concerning the Vietnam War era. This knowledge is associated with the term

Select one:

a. general intelligence.

b. fluid intelligence.

c. multiple intelligence.

d. crystallized intelligence.

All night, Pedro has been staring at Samantha from across the dance floor. At the end of the night, he finally gets the courage to ask her for her telephone number. His mental repetition of her number on the drive home is one example of

Select one:

a. chunking.

b. transference of memory.

c. the power of suggestion.

d. rehearsal.

estion

Question text

Match each example with the correct strategy for improving short-term memory

an individual creates a humorous saying to help her remember the symptoms of a certain anxiety disorderAnswer 1
an individual repeats the definitions of various therapy types over and over to remember themAnswer 2
an individual grows up without a father and is raised primarily by his mother and grandmother.  As a teenager, this individual expects all families to be like thisAnswer 3
a student organizes individual symptoms into categories of various disordersAnswer 4

Question text

Just before taking your French I exam, you were reviewing 5 terms that you had missed on the last vocabulary test. When you get to your exam, you find that you have an easy time answering several questions because they are related terms you just studied. This is an example of the

Select one:

a. recency effect.

b. von Restorff effect.

c. serial position effect.

d. primacy effect.

Flag question

Question text

Should Serina be surprised that her 10-month-old infant understands her command to pick up her rattle?

Select one:

a. No, because  infants’ comprehension of their world precedes their production ability.

b. Yes, because most infants don’t develop true comprehension until after their first birthday.

c. No, because most infants can comprehend hundreds of words by their first birthday.

d. Yes, because although most infants can produce hundreds of words before their first birthday, comprehension usually lags behind.

question

Question text

Which of the following is true about sign language?

Select one:

a. It does not use the same words and grammar rules as a spoken language

b. It uses the same words, but the grammar rules vary slightly

c. It uses some of the same areas of the brain as verbal language

d. It is not universal, and varies between countries

e. C and D

f. A and D

You need to remove a broken light bulb from a lamp. Without a pair of gloves, you are likely to cut yourself on the jagged glass. Suddenly, it occurs to you that you can use a cut potato to remove the light bulb from the socket. You have just demonstrated _____.

Select one:

a. insight learning

b. a cognitive map

c. S-O-R learning

d. latent learning

question

Question text

Gardner’s criteria for determining whether or not a mental ability is a distinct form of intelligence include

Select one:

a. Damage to a certain area of the brain would directly affect that intelligence

b. It is beneficial from an evolutionary perspective, such that it helps promote the individual’s survival

c. It is naturalistic, such that most individuals are born with it

d. It is learned through interpersonal relationships and intrapersonal experiences

e. A and B

question

Question text

Which choice (or choices) below is true of bilingualism?

Select one:

a. One language is usually dominant overt the other

b. Fluency in more than one language is most likely to be achieved when the individual is exposed to both languages early in life

c. Older adults are likely to forget their native language and remember to secondary language if it was learned in childhood

d. A and B

e. Bilingualism is more likely to be achieved in adulthood, because adults know how to learn language better than children

Question text

An individual is very good at learning how to solve problems.  This means that she has a high level of

Select one:

a. Crystallized Intelligence

b. Test-taking Intelligence

c. Sensory Intelligence

d. Specific Intelligence

e. Fluid Intelligence

f. General Intelligence

question

Question text

A key theme that has emerged from the memory research literature is that

Select one:

a. the passage of time has little or no effect on the accuracy of our memories.

b. memory illusions are evidence of serious memory problems such as Alzheimer’s disease or amnesia.

c. we actively reconstruct our memories using the cues and information available to us.

d. all explicit and implicit memories are stored in the hippocampus.

Which of the following statements is true concerning the relationship between brain size and intelligence?

Select one:

a. Higher brain volume usually correlates to specific artistic and musical abilities

b. Higher brain volume is unrelated to intelligence test scores.

c. Higher brain volume positively correlates to higher intelligence test scores.

d. Higher brain volume causes higher intelligence test scores.

e. The higher the brain volume is, the lower the intelligence test scores.

question

Question text

What is the relationship between suggestion techniques and the misinformation effect?

Select one:

a. They are the same thing

b. The misinformation effect is a type of suggestion technique in which information is provided to give a hint as to what needs to be recalled

c. They are the opposite

d. The misinformation effect happens because a suggestion technique was used

e. The misinformation effect is a type of suggestion technique in which false information is provided to encourage the person to recall something that didn’t happen.

Question text

Match the following examples with the corresponding component of classical conditioning.

An individual is bit by a specific breed of dog, and associates all dogs with that experience, thus reacting with fear to all dogsAnswer 1
An individual who associated dogs with being bitten gradually stopped feeling afraid around dogs, but then suddenly experienced intense fear when he came across a dog that looked just like the one that bit him previouslyAnswer 2
An individual eats lunch everyday immediate after a social studies class, and eventually begins to associate the class with lunch.  After a few weeks, the individual begins to experience hunger during social studies, even when the class is moved to a later timeAnswer 3
An individual experiences fear during a horror film about a murderer, but realizes this fear is different than the fear that would be experienced if faced with a real murderer or threatAnswer 4
After a car accident, an individual gradually stops feeling afraid while driving when he does not have another accidentAnswer 5

lag question

Question text

The view that humans learn language through various aspects of the social environment reflects which account of language acquisition?

Select one:

a. social pragmatics

b. general cognitive processing

c. operant conditioning

d. classical conditioning

e. behavioral learning theory

f. D and E

question

Question text

Which of the following is the best example of observational learning?

Select one:

a. Carey figures out if she doesn’t give her boss a hard time, he’s a lot nicer to be around.

b. Ingrid swam poorly until she noticed the efficient stroke of the man in the next lane; now her swimming is greatly improved.

c. Greg hears on the radio that a huge storm is blowing in, so he cancels his trip.

d. After several hours of staring at the computer screen, Marley suddenly realizes the solution to the puzzle he is trying to solve.

_____ was the first person to describe learning as acquired through classical conditioning while studying the digestive process of dogs.

Select one:

a. John Watson

b. Albert Bandura

c. Ivan Pavlov

d. B. F. Skinner

Question text

Sarah has just received her drivers’ license and is now ready to drive to school. Although she’s never driven to her school before, Sarah knows the way. The fact that Sarah can drive herself to school suggests that _____ has occurred.

Select one:

a. classical and operant conditioning

b. operant conditioning

c. classical conditioning

d. latent learning

Question text

The best predictor of whether someone will achieve fluency to speak a second language is

Select one:

a. the simplicity of the second language’s structure.

b. their motivation to learn.

c. their IQ level.

d. their age of acquisition of the second language.

Question text

Research regarding the genetic basis of intelligence has suggested that

Select one:

a. Intelligence is determined by the five genes that influence working memory

b. Intelligence is determined to a significant extent by the GABA gene

c. Intelligence is purely environmental, and genetics do not influence it at all

d. Intelligence is not limited to a single genetic or environmental cause, but rather a combination of genetic and environmental factors

e. Intelligence is determined by the genes that are shared by dizygotic twins, but not monozygotic twins

Question text

Which of the following is an example of positive reinforcement?

Select one:

a. Removing a child’s chores when he or she complete homework.

b. Allowing students homework passes if they work hard during class.

c. Taking away privileges if a child does not follow classroom rules.

d. Giving a child candy for completing their homework.

After Pavlov’s dogs became conditioned to salivate at the sound of the metronome, he experimented with sounding the metronome but not presenting the meat powder to the dogs. Soon they stopped salivating to the sound of the metronome. This represents the process called _____.

Select one:

a. spontaneous recovery

b. acquisition

c. extinction

d. testing

Question text

The process by which your brain processes only the information that it receives, irrespective of past experiences or expectations, is called _____ processing.

Select one:

a. top-down

b. misinformed

c. bottom-up

d. dorsal-lateral

Question text

Which of the following is true concerning the treatment of phobias using classical conditioning?

Select one:

a. Persons fearful of flying will first need to address the unresolved conflicts in their lives that are contributing to this phobia in order to eliminate the fear of flying.

b. Persons fearful of flying will need to avoid flying as a way to reduce this fear.

c. Persons fearful of flying will first need to address their childhood conflicts that are contributing this phobia in order to eliminate this fear of flying.

d. Persons fearful of flying will need to associate flying with something pleasurable to reduce this fear.

Question text

Among the major principles guiding attraction and relationship formation, _____ plays a more important role when a relationship moves to deeper levels.

Select one:

a. serendipity

b. proximity

c. reciprocity

d. similarity

Question text

Which type of conditioning works best i.e., what is the most effective and why?

Select one:

a. Effectiveness of each depends on the individual, what is being learned, and the context in which the learning occurs

b. Classical conditioning, because the learned associations do not go away

c. Neither, because everyone forgets things no matter how they are learned

d. Acquisition, because it focuses on remembering what is learned

e. Extinction, because it focuses on preventing the information from being forgotten

f. Operant conditioning, because rewards and punishment promote faster and more permanent knowledge acquisition

Which of the following illustrates the difference between conditioning and the social-cognitive views of learning?

Select one:

a. The type of logic that was used became more radical

b. An  entirely  different type of logic was used by the social cognitive views

c. The focus shifted to include unobservable processes such as purpose and consciousness

d. The focus on behavior and responses to stimuli increased

e. B and C

Question text

The brain’s tendency to streamline our thinking processes by use of preexisting knowledge is referred to as

Select one:

a. top-down processing.

b. inductive reasoning.

c. taxonomic construction.

d. bottom-up processing.

Question text

When information that you learned in your high school psychology class gets in the way of learning new information from your college-level psychology class, _____ has occurred.

Select one:

a. misinformation

b. interference

c. transience

d. long-term blocking

Question text

According to Spearman, it is one’s _____ intelligence that produces the positive correlations found between vocabulary, spatial ability, and verbal reasoning tests.

Select one:

a. fluid

b. general

c. crystallized

d. emotional

Question text

According to this theory, the fear you feel when you are startled by a bear in the woods occurs at about the same time that your heart starts pounding.

Select one:

a. James-Lange theory

b. Lazarus theory

c. Cannon-Bard theory

d. Schachter-Singer theory

Watson and Rayner offered a live, white rat to Little Albert.  At the same time, Watson then made a loud and startling noise behind LA’s head by striking a gong with a steel hammer. After several pairings of the rat and startling noise, the child came to fear the white rat. The white rat had now become a  _____ in Watson’s study.

Select one:

a. conditioned stimulus

b. unconditioned stimulus

c. unconditional stimulus

d. discriminative stimulus

Question text

Daniel works hard this semester because he needs to pass all the courses to graduate in time. This is one example of _____.

Select one:

a. extrinsic motivation

b. avoidance

c. approach

d. intrinsic motivation

The biological bases of how intelligence is managed within the brain suggests

Select one:

a. Brain size is the main factor to determining how smart an individual is or will become

b. Intelligence is the main function of the cerebral cortex and the amygdala

c. Intelligence is spread throughout the brain, with some areas appearing to be associated with certain types of intelligence

d. Intelligence depends on working memory, so it is determined only by the prefrontal cortex

e. A and C

Question text

_____ is the process of reactivating or reconstructing information from your memory store.

Select one:

a. Recall

b. Recognition

c. Remembering

d. Retrieval

Match the type of memory to each characteristic that applies to it

visual information that is retained for a few secondsAnswer 1
has unknown limits of capacity, and involves permanent retentionAnswer 2
auditory information that is only briefly retained, although for a slightly longer period of time than visual informationAnswer 3
holds briefly our perceptions from our sensesAnswer 4
storage of information that is the current subject of the individual’s thought or attentionAnswer 5

Watson and Rayner offered a live, white rat to Little Albert.  At the same time, Watson then made a loud and startling noise behind LA’s head by striking a gong with a steel hammer. After several pairings of the rat and startling noise, the child came to fear the white rat. The white rat had now become a  _____ in Watson’s study.

Select one:

a. conditioned stimulus

b. unconditioned stimulus

c. unconditional stimulus

d. discriminative stimulus

Question text

Daniel works hard this semester because he needs to pass all the courses to graduate in time. This is one example of _____.

Select one:

a. extrinsic motivation

b. avoidance

c. approach

d. intrinsic motivation

Question text

The biological bases of how intelligence is managed within the brain suggests

Select one:

a. Brain size is the main factor to determining how smart an individual is or will become

b. Intelligence is the main function of the cerebral cortex and the amygdala

c. Intelligence is spread throughout the brain, with some areas appearing to be associated with certain types of intelligence

d. Intelligence depends on working memory, so it is determined only by the prefrontal cortex

e. A and C

Question text

_____ is the process of reactivating or reconstructing information from your memory store.

Select one:

a. Recall

b. Recognition

c. Remembering

d. Retrieval

Question text

Match the type of memory to each characteristic that applies to it

visual information that is retained for a few secondsAnswer 1
has unknown limits of capacity, and involves permanent retentionAnswer 2
auditory information that is only briefly retained, although for a slightly longer period of time than visual informationAnswer 3
holds briefly our perceptions from our sensesAnswer 4
storage of information that is the current subject of the individual’s thought or attentionAnswer 5

After you finish reading this sentence, the information will remain in your _____ as you consider each of the answers below.

Select one:

a. photographic memory

b. sensory memory

c. short-term memory

d. long-term memory

Question text

Which of the following theories states that emotions derive from our interpretations of our bodily reactions to stimuli?

Select one:

a. Cannon-Bard theory of emotion

b. Two-factor theory of emotion

c. James-Lange theory of emotion

d. Somatic marker theory

Which of the following statements is true about language?

Select one:

a. It can be written, spoken, or signed.

b. It is incapable of an infinite set of meaningful utterances.

c. It has no set structure or rules that must be obeyed.

d. It is not symbolic.

Question text

Which of the following is an example of discovery learning?

Select one:

a. A student scoring well on a re-test after scoring low the first time

b. A …

Order a unique copy of this paper
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22