Guidelines and Tips for the Synthesis of Fruity Ester Report.
Title: Change it so that it includes the name of your ester. Example: Synthesis of Ethyl Acetate.
Abstract: As succinctly as possible describe: The purpose, method and results.
Use between one and three sentences for each category. In other words, what you were attempting to do, how you were attempting to do it, and the results. Limit the abstract to factual statements and do not include theory or analysis since these topics are covered in detail else ware. The entire abstract should be about 4 to 8 sentences. Include names of starting materials used, main method of purification of the product, techniques used to confirm the purity and identity of the product. Result should include actual b.p., yield, %yield and a summarizing statement about what the data revealed. Don’t analyze the data just state what you concluded from the data analysis.
Purpose and Theory: The purpose and theory section could be written in advance of the experiment. It could be written couple days or couple years before the experiment was performed. It should explain why the experiment should work. Do not discuss details of the procedure or what happened during the experiment. You will do that in the procedure and discussion section. In other words, talk in general terms about how carboxylic acids and alcohols react to form esters. Theory section should explain the following items:
- What functional groups must react to synthesize an ester?
- Does a catalyst help in ester formation? If so, what general type of catalyst? What is the general catalyzed mechanism? Can you explain how the catalyst promotes certain steps in the mechanism?
- Is this an equilibrium reaction? Can something be done to shift the equilibrium? What chemicals are present in the reaction mix after the equilibrium has been established?
- What methods will be used to isolate the product? How will you get rid of unreacted acid and catalyst? How will you get rid of unreacted alcohol?
- How will you determine the purity and identity of the product?
Procedure: Summary of the procedure carried out. Use past tense and passive voice of verbs. List what you did in sequential order and do not simply rewrite the procedure in the manual.
Data and Calculations: You have two options with this section. Option 1: simply present the data and reserve analysis and discussion for the discussion-conclusion section. Option 2: present, interpret, analyze, discuss etc. the data and only refer to these conclusions later in the report. Don’t analyze the data twice – in the data section and the discussion section. Refer to the data reporting guidelines on Moodle for proper data presentation.
- Actual amounts (g) of starting materials and amount (g) of the product.
- Calculations of actual yield (use % observed in GC if taken)
- Calculations of theoretical and %yield
- GC data
- Experimental IR and literature IR
- H1NMR and C13NMR
- MS data. (if obtained during lab)
Label each data or spectra (figure 1, figure 2 etc.) so you can refer to them appropriately in the report. Write the structure on each data set and make correlations between the structure and data by labelling (A, B, C…. or 1, 2, 3……) the structure and corresponding verification in the data. For example, a carbonyl carbon may be labeled “A” in the structure and its corresponding signal in the C-NMR would also be labeled “A” etc.
Discussion and Conclusions:
- Analyze the data if you did not do so in the data section. Discuss how the identity and purity of your product was determined and summarize this determination. Is your product pure? How do you know?
- Relate the conclusion to the purpose described in the abstract. Did you achieve your goal? Is the %yield low or high? What could contribute to a loss of yield? Are there changes that could be implemented that would improve the experiment, make easier, better yielding, higher purity?
References: Manual and any other sources.