Thermodynamics Dissolution of Borax Lab Report

Can you help me understand this Chemistry question? 1. Read the lab in lab manual pages 231-237 and fill out data table by completing the calculations using the raw data. Table 1. Raw and Processed Data for the Thermodynamic Dissolution of Borax Experiment Trial oneTrial TwoTrial OneTrial TwoTrial OneTrial TwoTrial OneTrial TwoTemperature of solution (ºC)2222303040404949Concentration of HCl (M)0.2830.2830.2830.2830.2830.2830.2830.283Volume ofBoraxSolution (mL)55555555Initial Buret Reading (mL) 32.613.236.33940.14543.140Final BuretReading (mL)34.515.53941.6454948.448Volume ofHCl (mL)Moles of HCl (moles) Moles of Borate (moles) Concentrationof Borate (M)Ksp Average KspΔ G (kJ/mol)Δ H (kJ/mol)Δ S (J/mol K) 2. Complete the following calculations – For each trial: – Calculate moles HCl titrated – Calculate moles borate ion – Calculate concentration borate ion – Calculate Ksp at the given T and average – Calculate your ΔG values ■ Class data (at home) on Excel – Do the same for each data point (moles HCl, moles borate ion, conc borate ion, Ksp) – Make a plot of ln(Ksp) vs 1/T for all of the data – Determine ΔH and ΔS from this graph – Calculate ΔG using equations A and B (see lab manual)3. Complete the Results section • A 2nd Excel worksheet “Calculation of Ksp”. This should include the following columns: o Volume HCl titrated in L for trial 1 o Volume HCl titrated in L for trial 2 o Moles of Borax for trial 1 o Moles of Borax for trial 2 o Concentration of borax for trial 1 o Concentration of borax for trial 2 o Ksp calculated from concentration of borax for trial 1 o Ksp calculated from concentration of borax for trial 2 o Average Ksp • A 3rd Excel worksheet “Calculation of Thermodynamic Values” showing the calculated results for each student in the class – each in a separate row. This should include the following columns: o Natural log of average Ksp o Temperature (converted to Kelvin) o Reciprocal Temperature (1/T) o Slope of ln(Ksp) vs. 1/T graph o Intercept of ln(Ksp) vs. 1/T graph o Gibbs Free Energy calculated using equation A: ΔG = -RT ln Ksp o Average of ΔG o Enthalpy (found from slope) o Entropy (found from intercept) o Gibbs Free Energy calculated using equation B: ΔG = ΔH – TΔS o Average of ΔG • A 4th, 5th, and 6th Excel sheet “Graphs” showing a graph of ln(Ksp) vs 1/T, ΔG vs T (using Equation A to calculate ΔG), and ΔG vs T (using Equation B to calculate ΔG)• 1-5 Sentence summary of your results at the end of the calculation sectionExample: – ____ g (or mL) of Reagent A were reacted with _____ g (or mL) of Reagent B until a precipitate formed/gas evolved/color change occurred. Observations were made and data were collected. Table 1 represents _____. Table 2 represents _____. Figure 1 represents _____. Figure 2 represents ____.4. Answer the following discussion questions ■ Compare your two calculated delta G values; do they agree? Based on your values, is the dissolution of borax spontaneous? ■ Why is it necessary to ensure that there was always some solid borax in the solution? ■ What was the Ksp value for your temperature? What does this say about the solubility of borax at this temperature? Compare this to the Ksp values at other temperatures and make a statement regarding the effect of temperature on solubility. If your results do not match what you expected, analyze sources of error. ■ Literature values for enthalpy and entropy of the dissolution of borax in water are 110 kJ/mol and 380 J/mol*K respectively. Do your values agree? Calculate your percent error and discuss sources of experimental error. You assumed that delta H and delta S are constant over the temperature range studied. Are they? 5. Write a conclusion paragraph answering the following questions: ■ Re-state the purpose of the experiment – For example: “The purpose of the experiment was to ___________” ■ How did you attempt to meet the purpose? – For example: “This was done by___________” ■ Was the purpose met? – For example: “The purpose was/was not met and…” ■ Was the actual outcome close to the anticipated outcome? – For example: “…the actual outcome was/was not near the anticipated outcome” ■ Why or why not? What errors did you specifically experience in this experiment? – For example: “The reason for the difference between the actual and anticipated outcomes is that during the experiment errors A and B occurred…” ■ What are some future improvements to this experiment?

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