Vertebrate Circulatory System and Blood Pressure Discussion

Vertebrate Circulation Vertebrate Circulation Interactive link

Directions:

  1. Click the Vertebrate Circulation link to open the interactive.
  1. Read the overview (text to the right) and answer the following questions:

2a. Why is it important for fish to have a generally low blood pressure?

2b.In general, how did the circulatory system change as vertebrates evolved?

  1. Click on the “Hagfish” button. View its circulatory system and read the information to the right. Answer the following questions:

3a. What is the difference between open and closed circulatory systems (you may need to use the lecture material/textbook to answer this question).

3b. Briefly describe the circulatory system of the hagfish

3c. What structures help pump blood through its diffuse environment? 3d. Click the “Heart Detail” button. How many chambers does the caudal heart have?

3e. What is the significance of the cartilaginous rod (how does it contribute to the function of the heart)?

3f. What prevents backflow of blood?

(Make sure to click the “Activate” button on all the organisms.)

  1. Click on the “Fish” button. View its circulatory system and read the information to the right. Answer the following questions:

4a. Describe the circulation pattern in the fish. Be sure to distinguish oxygenated and deoxygenate blood within the circulation.

4b. Click the “Heart Detail” button. How many chambers does the fish heart have?

4c. Briefly describe the fish circulation.

  1. Click on the “Lungfish” button. View its circulatory system and read the information to the right. Answer the following questions:

5a. What makes the circulatory system of lungfish more complex?  5b. Click the “Heart” button. How does the heart keep oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood separate?

  1. Click on the “Frog” button. View its circulatory system and read the information to the right. Answer the following questions:

6a. Through which structures do to adult frogs absorb oxygen from the environment?

6b. Briefly describe the pulmonary circulation of frogs, including the mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood.

6c. Click the “Heart” button. Briefly describe the structure of the heart.

Is the separation of the pulmonary and system circuits well defined?

6d. What happens to the blood coming from the skin inside of the heart?

  1. Click on the “Turtle” button. View its circulatory system and read the information to the right. Answer the following questions:

7a. What organ reoxygenates the blood?

7b. Click the “Heart” button. Which chambers are associated with this heart? How is oxygenated and deoxygenated blood prevented from mixing?

  1. Click on the “Crocodile” button. View its circulatory system and read the information to the right. Answer the following questions:

8a. How many chambers does the heart have? What is each called?

8b. What is unique about this heart? (The first evolved?)

8c. Click the “Heart” button. What structure keeps the left systemic arch from getting blood from the right atrium?

  1. Click on the “Bird” button. View its circulatory system and read the information to the right. Then click on the “Mammal” button. After reading the information provided, answer the following questions:

9a. What is significant about the pulmonary and system circuits being separated? What happens to the structure of the heart as a consequence of this?

9b. Click the “Heart” button. Which chambers are associated with bird and mammal hearts?

9c. What structure completely divides the ventricles?

9d. What prevents backflow between the atria and ventricles, and between the arteries and ventricles? (Hint, it is the same as 3f.)

  • Now, chart the flow of blood through the heart starting with the superior/inferior vena cavae and ending with the aorta. Make sure to include all valves. (You may need your textbook for this.)
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